Searching for a small business to buy and run instead of taking a more traditional post-MBA job like consulting is an idea that were seeing catch on at top business schools. At the Harvard Business School, for example, the number of MBAs who decide to look for a business to acquire right after graduation has gone from less than a handful a decade ago to more than a dozen, and in an occasional year, twice that amount. Stanfords most recent study of search funds also reports a record number of active search funds. Still, we often wonder why more students dont follow the entrepreneurship-through-acquisition path.
One of the most common concerns that we hear as we advise our students at HBS is that searching for a business to buy a full-time endeavor is too risky. While everyone should surely weigh this choice based on their own individual circumstances and subjective preferences, we think that these concerns about risk are misplaced and that searching for a business is less risky than other career paths that are traditionally considered more stable.
We put quotes around risk because we dont think our students are focused on financial measures of risk like the volatility of lifetime earnings when they tell us that searching for a business seems more risky than taking a more traditional job. We dont think there is much data to assess the actual financial risk of searching in comparison to other more traditional careers because there isnt much historical data on financial rewards for either career. And, interestingly, while our students talk to us a lot about the risk, they dont talk to us about the money differential; indeed, when they look at the business plans of small company acquisitions and compare those to the compensation typically offered in traditional career plans, they tell us that the numbers are too close to decide on that basis. So, it isnt the money that worries them.
We have talked to them extensively to understand the source of their angst. We think that instead of financial risk, they are concerned about the chance of not acquiring a small business during the search, along with uncertainty about the search process itself.
And surely there is more reason to be anxious at the start of a search. Just compare starting a more traditional consulting job to launching a search. In a consulting job, there is a great fit between training and tasks at the outset; when starting a search, the tasks are often vague, and MBAs arent taught how to identify acquisition prospects. In a consulting job, there is clarity about both roles and the path to success; in a search, it hard to see what works well and most searchers do a little bit of everything, work hard, and hope for the best. Plus, a consulting job aligns with external expectations: nobody has to explain anything to anybody when choosing a consulting career. It is a well-worn path. Searching is more like bushwhacking in the forest of opportunity.
No doubt our students are right: there is a lot more reason to feel angst at the outset when searching than at the start of a consulting career.
But we think that is a very short-sighted view. Searching lasts a year or two. Lets assume for now that the search is successful (well deal with the other case later on). That means the searcher becomes a CEO of a business. Over time the business evolves to match the CEO, the management team is picked by the CEO, the products and customer base shifts to align with the CEOs skills and interests, and the MBA-trained CEO is likely to understand the business better than competitors. Plus, the CEOs significant ownership interest adds both to rewards and stability. The life of a small business CEO certainly isnt worry-free, but the angst level surely is far less than searching.
In contrast, we think the level of stress increases during the course of a more traditional consulting role. Making partner is rare; in anecdotal conversations weve heard that fewer than one in ten MBA hires make it to the senior level of most large consulting firms. After all, it is the leverage of the pyramid structure that creates the wealth in consulting firms and that requires huge turnover at the bottom. Plus, the more senior the consultant becomes, the more the required tasks depart from MBA training; senior consultants need to be rainmakers, finding new, profitable clients for their firms, and they do that for decades, in the face of stiff competition from other firms.
In the long run, we think that being a senior consultant involves much more angst than being the CEO of a small business.
We dont know exactly how this plays out, but the picture below sketches the general idea. Angst is higher when starting to search but then falls as the searcher settles into the CEO/owner role. In contrast, it is low when starting a consulting career but then goes up. Importantly, the larger share of a career takes place on the right side of the graph, when this kind of stress and uncertainty is low for a CEO of a small business but high for a consultant...